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The geological features of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia resource is not renewable. Since the name of history and the secrets of geological eras and stages emerged as elements to attract the same values of historical and scientific material and attract millions of tourists, so the Saudi Geological Survey Authority established studies of geological features, and the primary objective to locate the various geological features and examine them in detail and work to highlight and preserve it.
 
 
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The mission
 To monitor and study the Geological features and setting the line i to maintain the diversity of geological aspects of the geological and geomorphological task of all kinds and to maintain operations where and to achieve the greatest degree of balance in these processes and their size and that all preparation of a methodology for the identification, protection and management and interpretation of the elements Home Heritage Saudi Geological.
 
 
The vision
 To be a specialized in studies of different geological features through the paint Lebesgue geological concepts and principles within the delivery mechanisms of development projects which contribute to economic growth and social War by strengthening the Heritage Project Geological Kingdom and provides suggestions on methods of managing geological parks Saudi Arabia, which will be created in the future will also provide advice on the methods or concepts paint ware tourism geological and geological in the Kingdom.
 
 
Objectives
 1) observe and study the Geological features different in all parts of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
 2) Maintain the natural phenomena and the diversity of geological Kingdom of Saudi Arabia through the dissemination of awareness of the importance of this project and understand the governmental institutions and the private sector to the concept of sustainable development in the preservation of geological heritage
 3) To achieve the principle of sharing with others interested in protecting the environment and demonstrate the importance of the relationship between biological diversity and geological diversity and collaboration in this area.
 4) Community awareness of the importance of geological diversity and enjoy this diversity in the Kingdom through the concept of geological, environmental, tourism and the need to maintain this diversity and, through promotion, education, and media
 5) Provide advice and provide information with regard to policy development and to propose practices and methods that achieve optimal and balanced resources geology
 6) To encourage cooperation within the scientific community in the field of geology, the interesting diversity of geological Kingdom
 7) Providing educational counseling to the community, schools and universities on the concept of conservation of monuments
 8) Recreation proposal for geological girl not part of a network of global geological parks
 
 
Relevant authorities
 Seeking the Saudi Geological Survey represented him in the Department Of Deserts Studies of Geofeatures for cooperation and consultation with several international bodies and through the conclusion of memoranda of cooperation for a joint and then, the General Authority for Tourism and Archaeological , Saudi Arabia, as well as both the Union of Geological Sciences, and the Organization of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, (UNESCO) and the link e to maintain the European geological heritage.
 
 
Previous projects
 1. Preliminary survey of the caves appropriate for the purposes of tourism in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia such as Cave Hill and steel cave my cave and humidity 32
 2. Proposals for the development of caves in Saudi Arabia.
 3. Preliminary survey of the caves in the area Alhbkp Saudi Arabia.
 4. Register cavernous formations indicative of climate change in Saudi Arabia.
 5. Ghar Al Hibashi, Harrat Nwasif / Al Buqum. Kingdome of Saudi Arabia.
 6. Prospect for lava - caves studies in harrat khaybar, Saudi Arabia
 7. Preliminary survey on the lava tube caves in free Kcb Saudi Arabia
 8. Studies of geological features in the square cavity.
 9. Tourist attractions and historical province of Rabigh.
 10. Geological features and tourist province of Badr.
 
 
1) Surface geologic features:
Saudi Arabia has a unique position and the nature of geological stunning where there are geological formations themselves, as revealed by the records of rock for most of the geological ages from basement rocks that form (rock Shield) from the ages of life latent (800-550 million years) and represent the rocks of the Arabian Shield, which age up to one billion and one hundred million years, the ages of rocks topped by the phenomenon of life (the era of ancient life, middle and modern), which extends life of 550 million years until the present day.
 
This unique diversity in the manifestations of geological ideal, which made up bright colors, as well as the presence of igneous and metamorphic in the Arabian Shield in the west of the Arabian Peninsula, and hundreds of mineralized zones, which contain most of the metals, along with sedimentary rocks and diversity prevalent in central and north and east of the Kingdom, with their fossils rare in rocks, Old Navy and distinctive of all the geological ages in the kingdom next to the petrified trees special continental sedimentary rocks of the old.
 
 
The definition of surface geological features:
It forms geomorphological deals that appear on the surface of the earth, which formed by factors cosmic different from building and demolition and erosion over millions of years, and one of the natural resources non-renewable, so it must be preserved after the studied geological specialist to search for reasons Ncinha and their formation in nature
 
 
Types of surface geological features

  

  •   Rock formations
Aesthetically pleasing rock formations can be considered as part of natural museum and of rich geologic heritage that causes wonder to the beholder and appreciation of the creations of allah,the almighty, As well as the high mountains OR High hills, steep edges, and scenic views are attractive for mountaineering.
  
  
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Some natural rock formations in Saudi Arabia
 
 
 
  •   Hot spring
Flow of hot water from the Hot spring relative to all types of rocks and geological structures some of which is associated with rocks of the foundation firearms or metamorphic and other associated rocks of the sedimentary cover, and therefore the water quality of hot springs vary depending on the mineral composition and chemical rock custodian and rock the other, through which during its rise to the surface, and thus to know the possibility of treatment of certain skin diseases
 
 
 
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Poster showing the location of hot springs in the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia
 
 
 
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One of the hot springs in the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia
 
 
 
  •   Deep valleys
Forming deep valleys (deep) in general by geomorphologic processes of the sand stone and another rocks on both sides of the different slopes of deep valleys, made up of forms of aesthetic characteristic.
 
 
 
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Tayb Ism fault in the south of Haql city (north of the Kingdom)
 
 

 

Volcanic lavas or craters cover many areas of west half of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, encompassing over 82,000 sq.km. they include rare and unusual geologic formations that need conservation and protection.
 
 
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Volcanic pipes 
 
 
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Fracture in harrat Rahat
 
 
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Volcanic nick in harrat Rahat 
 
 
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Volcanic nick of jabal Baydha
 
 

 

  •   Coasts, coral reefs, and islands
The kingdom of Saudi Arabia has a beautiful coastline, magnificent coral reefs, and islands that extend long distances along the red sea and the Arabian gulf. There are about 1000 off shore islands within the kingdom’s territory.

 

  •   Sand dunes
Sand dunes in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia are found in crescent, star , or other shapes. They have beautiful shapes and can be an attractive to sports enthusiasts.
 
 
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Sand dunes in Al-Jauf region
 
 
 
2) Underground geologic features (Caves):
The underground caves, a geological and geomorphological phenomena, the natural spread in different regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which show different shapes and sizes located beneath the surface of the earth, and have a normal channels or passages. The caves of the important geological features Knower (for being a base for scientific research geological), historical and tourist attraction in most countries of the world.
 
 
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Location map of the caves in Saudi Arabia.
 
 
 
The definition of Underground geologic features (caves)
Caves are air-filled underground voids developed by the former action of water on rock that over a long period of time was dissolved, opening up holes and tunnels in the ground. The holes and tunnels in cave systems are normally interconnected, depending on how the water seeped through the rock along joints and cracks, working its way down to the water table below the surface of the ground.
 
The Caves located more prevalent in Saudi Arabia within the limestone- the most common type of rock to have caves - which in this part of Saudi Arabia consists of calcium carbonate and small amounts of magnesium carbonate. The rocks found 50 million years ago from the calcareous shells and skeletons of countless organisms that flourished in shallow warm seas that covered the Arabian Peninsula. Over time, the shelly deposits were cemented by additional calcium carbonate, became hard and turned into limestone, forming a geologic unit referred to as the Umm er Radhuma and Rus formations. Starting 25 million years ago, these formations were raised above sea level by earth movements affecting the whole of the Middle East, and were exposed to wind and rain at the surface.
 
The action of water percolating down through soluble rock is critical for the formation of most caves. Some caves develop because sulfuric acid rises from deep below the surface, but this is rare and it is not known if any of the caves in the Ma'aqala area formed in this fashion. Most likely they all formed by water action - either by falling rain or by streams that sink into the ground through joints and holes.
 
 
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The cave processes
 
 
 
The process of forming caves in soluble rock is very slow. As rain falls through the air, it absorbs a small amount of carbon dioxide and picks up additional carbon dioxide from the soil. The result is a weak solution of carbonic acid that seeps downward, dissolving the limestone bedrock and opening up cavities and inter-connected channels. If streams flow on the surface - and in the recent geologic past, Saudi Arabia was much wetter and probably had permanent drainage - additional weakly acid water would enter the limestone where streams sink down holes and cavities. The underground water will move along the bedding and down the joints, forming long tunnels by combined solution and normal erosion. Sometimes the water moves very slowly and dissolves the rock instead of wearing it away, creating an intricate labyrinth of passageways. In other places, joints become enlarged, resulting in vertical shafts and chimneys.
 
And also exists another type of caves in volcanic harraats which caused by volcanic lava tubes are formed in the basaltic rock called the harrats.
 
 
Cave Deposits
A large part of the fascination that people feel for caves is because of the wonderful varied types of deposits that form inside caves after the water table drops and they begin to dry out. This is because the water that drips into, or flows through the now air-filled cave, is still full of dissolved minerals that precipitate as the carbon dioxide escapes from the water. The results are cave deposits, or speleothems, as they are technically called, There are two main types: stalactites, which are formed by water dripping from the ceiling and hang from the cave roof and stalagmites, which grow up from the floor where the drops fall.
 
Some caves have beautiful coatings of minerals where thin sheets of water flow down the cave walls or along inclines. Others have small pebble-like deposits or cave pearls that grow in small pools.
 
 
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Calcite deposits in one of the caves in the Kingdom
 
 
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Stalactite and stalagmite in one of the Saudi caves
 
 
 
The Importance of Caves
Caves are important, not only because they are beautiful and awe-inspiring, but because they provide a detailed record of past climate, surface processes, fauna, and flora. Careful chemical analysis of the cave deposits reveals information about the abundances of different isotopes of carbon, sulfur, and other trace elements that were present in the atmosphere when the deposits formed and gives an age of the deposits. The two types of information - chemical and chronologic - provide a record of climate change.
 
Examination of bones, pollen, and spores that may be trapped in dust and silt in the caves gives information about the types of animals and plants that existed in the recent past in areas that are now desert. Surveying the caves and mapping the types and distributions of cave deposits provides information about the rise and fall of the water table, which, in turn, is a key to understanding the changing rates of discharge and recharge of the water volume and increases and decreases of rainfall.
 
 
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Topographic sketch for one of the caves in Saudi Arabia